About Mongolia

Mongolia is truly one of the world's last undiscovered travel destinations and the safest country to visit. It is a land where you can experience wide-open spaces, cobalt blue skies, forests, deserts, crystal clear rivers and lakes, and the traditional hospitality of the nomads. Permanent dwellings are few and far between, fences even fewer and the land is owned by the people, like one large National Park. As a tremendous destination to experience the outdoors, Mongolia also boasts of unique history dating back to the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. Simply put, it is a land of adventure, horses, nomads, and blue sky.

MONGOLIA BASIC INFORMATION

POPULATION:

3.0 million

AREA:

1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi)

LAND BOUNDARIES:

8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with China 4,673 km

AVERAGE ALTITUDE:

1,580 m above sea-level

TERRAIN:

Vast semi-desert and desert plains, mountains in west and southwest,
Gobi Desert in southeast

PEOPLE:

Khalkha Mongols (86%), Kazaks (6%), about a dozen other Mongolian 
ethnic groups

LANGUAGES:

Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, Chinese. English is widely spoken in the 
Ulaanbaatar.

RELIGIONS:

Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Christian and Shamanism

LITERACY RATE:

82.9%

CLIMATE:

Average summer temperature +20'C, average winter temperature -26'C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. Winter lasts from November to late April, Spring from May through June, Summer from July through September.

POLITICAL SYSTEM:

Parliamentary republic. President elected for four years. Present President ElbegdorjTsahia, elected in 2013. Prime Minister appointed by State Great Khural for four years. Present Prime Minister Mr. Saikhanbileg.Ch was appointed in 2014.

LEGISLATURE:

State Great Khural (Parliament), unicameral with 76 members elected for four years. The last election was held in 2012.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM:

Mongolian judicial system consists of Constitutional Court , Supreme Court, Aimag and capital city courts, soum and district courts.

STATE STRUCTURE:

Mongolia is a unitary state and divided administratively into Aimags (21) and a capital city; Aimags are subdivided into soums; soums into bags; and a capital city into districts; districts into khoroos.

NATIONAL CURRENCY:

Tugrik (MNT), about MNT 1986 = USD 1 (by Sep 2015)

FISCAL YEAR:

January 1 - December 31

MAIN ENTRY POINTS:

ChinggisKhaan (airport in Ulaanbaatar ), Sukhbaatar (railway station on Mongolian-Russian border) and ZamynUud (railway station on Mongolian-Chinese border)

SEA ACCESS:

Tianjin/China (1,344 km) and Nakhodka/Russia (4,037 km)

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS:

December 31- January 1 - New Year 3 days, 
in January/February - Mongolian New Year (TsagaanSar), 
June 1 - Mother and Child day, 
July 11-13 - National Holiday (Naadam)

TIME:

Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time

NORMAL WORKING HOURS:

09.00-13.00 and 14.00-18.00

About Khuvsgul Lake

Khuvsgul nuur is located in the northwest of Mongolia near the Russian border, at the foot of the eastern Sayan Mountains. It is 1,645 metres (5,397 feet) above sea level, 136 kilometres (85 miles) long and 262 metres (860 feet) deep. It is the second-most voluminous freshwater lake in Asia, and holds almost 70% of Mongolia's fresh water and 0.4% of all the fresh water in the world.[1] The town of Hatgal is at the southern end of the lake.

Khövsgöl Nuur holds nearly 70% of Mongolia’s freshwater and 0.4% of all the freshwater in the world. It has a relatively small watershed, and is fed by 46 small tributaries. The lake’s surface totally freezes over during the winter and produces an ice which is 1-1.5 meters thick. The ice layer starts to form at the end of fall and can stay frozen until June.

The lake provides habitat for 10 different species of fish and 44 different water plants. Its shores are home to 750 plant species. 291 species of birds can be seen around the lake, of which 258 are migratory birds. The Baikal teal, the bar-headed goose, the black stork and the Altai snowcock are some of the best-known birds.

68 mammal species were discovered here, of which 10% are endemic. The abundance of wildlife is mostly represented by ibex, argali, elk, wolf, wolverine, musk deer, brown bear and the Siberian moose.

The most popular fish living in the lake are Eurasian perch, burbot, salmon, sturgeon, grayling, and lenok. The Hovshol grayling also lives in the lake, and although it has become endangered because of poaching, it is still abundant through much of the lake.

The Tsaatan live as nomads - moving camp several times a year, usually when the seasons change. They do this of necessity. If they stayed in their winter camp during the hot summer, their reindeer would become vulnerable to insects and parasites.

The Tsaatan life has been built entirely around their reindeers. Their reindeers provide them with milk, cheese, meat, and transportation. They sew their clothes with reindeer hair; reindeer dung fuels their stoves; and antlers are used to make tools.

Today's Reindeer People still live in tepees. On hot summer nights, they light fires to create a smoke screen from the flies and mosquitoes. At night, they sleep naked under furs as the smoky remnants of the fire escape through the teepee's peak.